Mitochondria May Keep Time for Cells

ust as people in different places seem to operate at different rhythms. So too do different species. They age at their own rates. Some, like the fruit fly, race to adulthood so they can reproduce before their ephemeral food source disappears. While creatures like humans mature slowly over decades, in part because building a large. …

Behold Modular Forms the Fifth Fundamental Operation

There are five fundamental operations in mathematics,” the German mathematician Martin Eichler supposedly said. “Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and modular forms.” Part of the joke, of course, is that one of those is not like the others. Modular forms are much more complicated and enigmatic functions, and students don’t typically encounter them until graduate school. …